Haugen's 1966 Language Planning ModelThis is a featured page

Haugen's language planning model was initially conceived as 4 stages of language development in taking crucial steps from a "dialect" to a "language." The four sequential steps are:
  1. Norm Selection- This is the choice of a language variety for specific purposes. It is associated with official status or national roles in status planning.
  2. Codification- This step is related to the stabilization of the norm selected. It is also related to the standardization process in corpus planning.
  3. Implementation-This step involves the actions of government agencies, instututions, and writers in adopting and using the selected and codified norm. It involves (among other things) the production of newspapers, textbooks, and other publications, as well as adoption for mass media.
  4. Elaboration-This step involves the expansion of language functions and the assignment of new codes, such as scientific and tecnical. It is also called language modernization by Fishman.
Neustupny (1970) proposes an alternative model that focuses on language cultivation as a seperate stage or process. For Neustupny, language cultivation involves functional differentiation of one variety from another within a given code through identification of registers that determine norms of appropriateness, correctness, and style.

Fishman reconciles the two models by arguing that cultivation fits into Haugen's model, while Haugen's implementation step fits into Neustupny's model.

One question posed by Haugen, which Language Planning (LP) scholars, practitioners, educators, and nations struggle with today is--when norms conflict, do we plan for unity or diversity? For transitional bilingualism or for maintenance?

Latest page update: made by chrisallenthomas , Oct 16 2008, 6:17 PM EDT (about this update About This Update chrisallenthomas Moved from: Chris Allen Thomas' Applied Linguistics Wiki - chrisallenthomas

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